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EOS的產品副總裁:v0.3.0版EOS.IO憲法草案合集

IMEOS ·

08月23日

熱度:

本文翻譯自EOS的產品副總裁Thomas先生發表在EOS GO上的EOS憲法草案系列文章。本期是來自EOS憲法草案系列條款九——十五的合集。

條款9:?設立仲裁法庭

Purpose

Establishes the third leg of governance, the Judicial. Restricts Arbitrators to operate only within the context of an Arbitration Forum. (For more on what an Arbitration Forum is, read the Discussion.)

目的

建立治理的第三步,即司法。限制仲裁員只能在仲裁法庭的范圍內行使(仲裁)。 (關于仲裁法庭的更多內容,請閱讀討論部分。)

Text of Article

No Arbitrator shall serve except within an Arbitration Forum.

條款正文

任何仲裁員均不得在仲裁法庭之外行使仲裁。

Discussion

Several points.

Arbitrators are not free-range lone actors. They operate under very tight constraints:

They only rule on cases brought to them by a party

They operate within the rules of the Arbitration Forum that certified them

Their work is subject to oversight by their Forum

They publish their Findings and Orders for public view (except some aspects of cases may be kept confidential when a party to the case might be harmed by publication)

Their decisions must be reflective of the Constitution, the specific Contracts in play in the case, and the emerging social norms of the community

討論

有以下幾點。

仲裁員不是自由放任的角色。 仲裁員們在非常嚴格的限制下行使仲裁:

? ?1.他們只裁決由某一方當事人提請的糾紛案件? ?

? ?2.他們在認證了他們仲裁員資格的仲裁法庭的規則范圍內行使仲裁 ? ?

? ?3.他們的工作受到他們所屬的仲裁法庭的監督? ?

? ?4.公開發表他們的調查結果和仲裁命令(當案件的一方可能因公布而受到傷害時,案件的某些方面可能會被保密) ? ?

? ?5.他們的裁決必須要反映憲法,案件中具體的合約,以及社區新興的社會規范。

An Arbitration Forum is a collection of:

A specific set of Rules of Dispute Resolution (RDR) for managing arbitration cases and deciding those casesA particular set of people who have organized the forum and who manage cases and assign arbitratorsA system of arbitration training and certificationA set of individual Arbitrators who have been trained and certifiedHow is a particular Arbitration Forum empowered to take a case?

仲裁法庭是以下事項的一個集合:

一套具體的用于管理仲裁案件和裁決這些案件的糾紛處理規則(RDR)

組織仲裁法庭、管理案件并指派仲裁員的一組特定人員

一套仲裁的培訓和認證系統

一組經過培訓和認證的個體仲裁員

一個特定的仲裁法庭如何授權接受案件?

The two disputants have agreed to use that particular forum, either before or after their dispute arises (it's better to agree in advance)The two disputants have signed a contract that stipulates the use of that particular forumThe two disputants are part of a community or enclave, and as members they agreed to use a particular forumAs a special case, the EOSIO Constitution should refer to a specific forum so that, if none of the prior conditions are met, there is still a forum available by defaultI'm aware that the plural of the Latin word 'forum' is 'fora' -- I chose to say 'forums' because that's become accepted English usage.

References

None yet

糾紛雙方同意在糾紛發生之前或之后使用該特定仲裁法庭(最好事先同意)

糾紛雙方簽署了一份規定使用該特定仲裁法庭的合約

糾紛雙方是社區或民族聚集地的一員,作為成員他們同意使用某個特定仲裁法庭

作為特例,EOSIO憲法應該指定一個特定的仲裁法庭,以便如果任何先前的條件都沒有滿足,仍然有一個默認的仲裁法庭可用

我知道拉丁詞'forum'的復數是'fora' -- 而我選擇說'forums',因為這已是英語的使用習慣。

參考

還沒有

條款10 :仲裁員標準?

Purpose

Sets minimum standards for an Arbitrator and an Arbitration Forum.

目的

為仲裁員和仲裁法庭設定最低標準。

Text of Article

No Member shall serve as an Arbitrator who has not

●Agreed in advance to the Arbitrator Agreement provided by the Members,

●Been nominated by at least two other Members, and

●Completed the course of study of, been certified by, and be in good standing with their Forum.

條款正文

任何成員均不得以仲裁員自居,如果他們尚未:

●事先同意成員提供的仲裁協議,

●至少由另外兩位成員提名,并且

●完成了仲裁法庭的學習過程,獲得了認證,并具有良好的信譽。

Discussion

None - see?Article IX??for most of the discussion points on Arbitration in the Constitution

References

none yet

討論

無 - 有關“憲法”仲裁的大部分討論要點見條款9

譯者附:

1.此條款中的Members指的應該是憲法草案條款的前幾條中提到的”共同行動成員“。

2.仲裁協議指的應該是憲法草案條款3。

條款11 :開發人員和智能合約許可證?

Purpose

Defines when a Member is a Developer. Establishes obligation of a Developer to provide a License and one or more Ricardian Contracts, and to name an Arbitration Forum for their software.

目的

定義一個成員何時是一個開發人員。規定開發者有義務提供許可證和一份或多份李嘉圖合約,并為其軟件指定一個仲裁法庭。

Text of Article

Each Member who makes available a smart contract on this blockchain shall be a Developer. Each Developer shall offer their smart contracts via a license, and each smart contract shall be documented with a Ricardian Contract stating the intent of all parties and naming the Arbitration Forum that will resolve disputes arising from that contract.

條款正文

每個在此區塊鏈上提供智能合約的成員均為開發人員。每個開發人員都應通過許可證來提供他們的智能合約,每份智能合約應記錄在一份說明各方意圖的李嘉圖合約中,并指定仲裁法庭來處理合約中產生的糾紛。

Discussion

It's not clear at the Constitutional level what happens, or what should happen, in cases where code is published but no License is provided, or when no Ricardian Contract is provided. The EOSIO Software doesn't require either at the code level. Arbitrators will be required to figure out how to handle such cases.

A Member who is considering running someone's software should be wary of software offered without a clear License and without any Ricardian Contract(s).

It's certainly possible for the License terms to be referenced by, or even contained entirely within, the Ricardian Contract(s). That might be a good practice.

References

None yet.

討論

在憲法層面上并不清楚,在發布代碼但沒有提供許可證或沒有提供李嘉圖合約的情況下,會發生什么或者應該會發生什么。 在代碼層面上,EOSIO軟件也不需要弄清楚(會發生什么或者應該會發生什么)。仲裁員將需要弄清楚如何處理這種情況。

如果某軟件沒有明確的許可證且沒有任何李嘉圖合約的話,那么考慮運行它的成員應該要警惕了。

許可條款當然有可能被李嘉圖合約引用,甚至完全包含在其內。這可能是一個很好的做法。

參考

還沒有。

條款12:多語言合約

Purpose

To give room for a contract to be provided in multiple languages while eliminating ambiguity as to which is the official version.

目的

為了給合約提供多語言的空間,同時消除哪些版本才是官方版本的歧義。

Text of Article

Multi-lingual contracts must specify the prevailing language in case of dispute.

條款正文

如有糾紛,多語種合約必須指明使用哪國語言作為主導語言。

Discussion

As discussed elsewhere, the official language of this Constitution is English. It may be translated into other languages, but the version that prevails in disputes is English.

Similarly, a given contract that is provided in multiple languages needs to include a statement regarding which version prevails in a dispute.

If the author doesn't specify a prevailing language, it's going to be up to the Arbitrator of the dispute to pick a version (unless the disputants agree on one). There is no way in this Discussion section to anticipate or control how that decision will unfold. For that reason it is probably a best practice for each developer to either only offer one language, or to state explicitly which language is the official and prevailing one.

References

None yet.

討論

正如別處所討論的,這部憲法的官方語言是英語。它可能被翻譯成其他語言,但糾紛中采用的主導語言大都是英語。

同樣,以多種語言提供的特定合約需要包括一個聲明,指明糾紛中將采用哪國語言作為主導語言。

如果作者沒有指明主導語言,則將由處理糾紛的仲裁員來選擇(除非糾紛雙方達成一致)。本討論部分沒有辦法預測或控制該裁決將如何展開。因此,對于每個開發者來說,最好的做法可能是只提供一種語言,或者明確指出哪種語言是官方的和主導的。

譯者附:

1.Multilingual Contracts翻譯為多語言合約,Multi-lingual Contracts翻譯為多語種合約。

2.the prevailing language翻譯為主導語言,在本條的語境下,是以什么什么為準的含義。

3.感謝@幣律?對本條款做出的幫助。

條款13:開發者對非成員的訪問負責

Purpose

To ensure that someone is responsible for all on-chain interactions.

目的

確保有人對所有的鏈上的交互負責。

Text of Article

As Developers are able to offer services and provide interaction with the blockchain to non Members via their applications, the Developer assumes all responsibility for guaranteeing that non-Member interaction conforms to this Constitution.

條款正文

由于開發者能夠通過其應用程序,向非成員提供服務并提供區塊鏈互動,因此開發者承擔全責來保證非成員的互動是符合本憲法的。

Discussion

It is easy to imagine ways a developer of a decentralized application might make on-chain activity available to a person who is not a Member (i.e. who owns no tokens and who has not signed the Constitution). For example they could provide anonymous transactions, or maintain a user list off-chain, allowing their users to perform actions on-chain with the developer's own tokens staked for CPU, Bandwidth, and RAM, and operating under the developer's permission set.

Such external users, being non-members and potentially anonymous, will be hard to hold responsible for any on-chain actions that might give rise to liability.

Therefore the Developer must bear that responsibility.

References

None yet.

討論

很容易想象,分散式應用程序的開發者,很有可能,會讓不是成員的人(即沒有token并且沒有簽署憲法的人員)可以進行鏈上活動。 例如,他們(開發者)可以提供匿名交易,或者鏈下維護一個用戶列表,允許用戶在鏈上執行操作,通過使用開發者為了CPU、帶寬、內存而質押的開發者自己的token,并且在開發者權限設置下操作。

對于任何可能引起法律責任的鏈上操作,這些外部用戶(非成員并且可能是匿名的)將很難負責。

因此開發者必須承擔這一責任。

譯者附:

CPU、token不翻譯

條款14:無積極權利

Purpose

Prevents the creation of positive Constitutional rights.

目的

防止創建憲法的積極權利。

Text of Article

This Constitution creates no positive rights for or between any Members.

條款正文

本憲法不為任何成員創建積極權利,也不會在任何成員之間創建積極權利。

Discussion

As described in the ?Design Principles of this Draft Constitution, it's important for several reasons that the Constitution not create, directly or by implication, any positive rights.

Negative rights provide the greatest freedom of action for all parties.

Negative rights can (almost) always be respected via inaction, and violations are (usually) easy to spot.

Negative rights do not create obligations for action on others and don't create a slippery slope of entitlement or a path toward transforming this chain's default token into a de facto security.

The intention of this article is to make it clear that none of the other articles, and nothing in the subordinate governing documents (BP Agreement, Arbitrator Agreement, etc.) can or should be interpreted as conferring a positive right on any Member.

References

None yet

討論

正如《憲法草案的設計原則》中所述,憲法不會直接或間接地創建任何積極權利,有以下幾個重要原因:

消極權利為各方提供了最大的行動自由。

通過不采取行動,消極權利可以(幾乎)始終被尊重,而且違規行為(通常)很容易被發現。

消極權利不會給他人套上行動的義務,也不會創造權利的滑坡謬誤,或將此鏈的默認token轉變為事實上的證券。

本條款旨在明確指出,其他條款以及下屬治理文件(區塊生產者協議,仲裁協議等等)中沒有任何條款可以或應該被解釋為賦予任何成員一個積極權利。

譯者附:

1.Slippery slope指的是滑坡謬誤,是一種邏輯謬論,即不合理地使用連串的因果關系,將“可能性”轉化為“必然性”,以達到某種意欲之結論。

2.在憲法學領域,根據對自由類型的劃分,有消極權利和積極權利之分。

3.token不翻譯。

4.此條款的翻譯得到了【小康崽兒】的幫助協力,特此感謝。


文章原標題:Thomas Cox: v0.3.0版EOS.IO憲法草案合集? 原作者:成天樂翻譯

關鍵字: EOS IMEOS

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